A protest in March against alleged corruption linked to the Prime Minister, Dmitry Medvedev, drew an estimated 60,000 people to the streets in cities across Russian Federation.
Medvedev dismissed Navalny's allegations as politically motivated "nonsense" and called the opposition politician a muck-raking charlatan.
The protests were the biggest antigovernment outpouring in Russian Federation in years, with more people in more cities heeding Navalny's call than his last series of demonstrations in March.
Around 1,000 protesters started to move from the square towards the Kremlin, but their path was blocked by police barriers put in place as part of a festival of historical costumes on Tverskaya Street, Moscow's central thoroughfare.
Although there is no significant clarity on whether President Vladimir Putin would contest the election next year, he is widely expected to stay on for another term.
Navalny argues that he was forced to call people to another unauthorised rally, claiming that no firm would supply a stage, screens or speakers for the protest he had been given permission for. "People are not afraid".
Teenager Anna Meigan was detained as she protested in Moscow. Once the protest got underway, more than 100 people were reported arrested in the Russian capital and a similar number in St. Petersburg.
A Moscow court, sitting late Monday, sentenced Navalny after finding him guilty of violating law regarding holding rallies.
He was jailed for 15 days after the March protests.
Opposition party leader Alexey Navalny was detained Monday after calling on his followers to gather at "unauthorized" area in Moscow, Russia's news agency TASS reported. "There is so much evidence that our officials are stealing with impunity".
Some activists make quacking sounds or held up plastic ducks, which have become a symbol of the anti-corruption rallies since a Navalny expose early this year alleged the prime minister had built a house for the waterfowl at one of his estates. In the film, Medvedev was accused of benefiting from the transfer of at least $1.2 billion in funds and assets to organizations controlled by people close to the Putin ally.
"There are people walking around the streets in World War I uniforms", Mary Louise says. The Interior Ministry said more than 650 people had been detained in Moscow and St. Petersburg.
Russian opposition leader Alexei Navalny talks to journalists during a hearing at a court in Moscow, Russia, June 12, 2017.
State media ignored the demonstrations, broadcasting Soviet-style coverage of Putin handing out state awards instead. It was the largest street protest in Russian Federation since 2012, when thousands demonstrated against election fraud after Putin's reelection.
Opposition party leader and protest organizer Aleksei A. Navalny moved the protests from the designated Sakharova Street to the central street in downtown Moscow, away from the approved location, alleging the contractors refused to offer him equipment for the rally.
Moscow City Hall labelled the decision a "provocation" while the police warned that "any provocative actions by the protesters will be viewed as threat to public order and immediately thwarted".
However, opinion polls suggest he would stand little chance of beating Mr Putin, who continues to enjoy favourable ratings. As police detained demonstrators, hundreds of others shouted slogans including "Putin is a thief" and "Shame!" "We support Navalny", said 16-year-old Yegor with a poster saying "Corruption steals the future".
In a blog post published last week, Navalny wrote, "I want changes". "Russia is an authoritarian regime, and I want to change it into a Democracy", he said.